Bismillah walhamdolilah wasalatu wasalam ‘ala Rasool Allah It is imperative to realize that fiqh has gone through many developments/stages, which traditionally fall into six categories: Foundational Stage – This period is characterized by the Prophethood of Muhammad sallalahu alayhi wasalam which lasted for 23 years (610 – 632 CE) Establishment Stage – This period is characterized by the Righteous Caliphs radhiAllah anhum which lasted for 29 years from the death of the Prophet sallalahu alayhi wasalam (632 CE) to the midle of the 7th century (661 CE) Building Stage – This period is characterized by the founding of the Umayyad dynasty until its decline to the middle of the 8th century Flowering Stage – This period is characterized by the rise of the ‘Abbaasid dynasty in the middle of the 8th century to the beginning of its decline around the middle of the 10th century Consolidation Stage – This period is characterized by the decline of the ‘Abbaasid dynasty to the murder of the last ‘Abbaasid Caliph in the middle of the 13th century Stagnation and Decline Stage – This period is characterized by the sacking of Baghdad in 1258 CE to our present times This gives us a brief overview of the developments of fiqh.
- Bismillah walhamdolilah wasalatu wasalam ‘ala Rasool Allah When we begin to talk about a field of study in the religion of Islam it is very imperative we begin by defining the terms; making clear the terminology which is used throughout that field of study. With that said, I want to focus on Fiqh. Linguistically, fiqh is defined as the true understanding of what is intended. For example: The true understanding of Anatomy, the true understanding of Plants, or the true understanding of Religion.
- A lot of people–especially new Muslims–break their heads on this conundrum. What is the difference between fard and wajib? Are they the same? Are they different? What’s the scoop? Why do some people say fard, while others say wajib for the same things? The answer is simple. According to the majority of scholars, fard and wajib mean the EXACT same thing. There is no difference. They are interchangable. (Recall that fard means: an action that, if performed, entails reward, and if neglected, entails punishment.
- Fard: technically, it means any action which, if done, deserves reward from Allah; and if neglected, deserves punishment from Allah. (Yes, that’s right–you actually earn reward for doing all those fard actions!) Here, we discuss two classifications of faraaid–Sofa Fard, and Bucket-Seat Fard. Sofa Fard Sofa Fard (also known as Fard Muwassa’) is a fard which you have a choice of when you can do it. It’s like a sofa–you can sit on the left, on the right, in the middle, anywhere you want!
- The Messenger of Allah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said: “The Pen is lifted from three (i.e., their deeds are not recorded): a child until he reaches puberty; an insane man until he comes to his senses; one who is asleep until he wakes up.” [Recorded in Abu Dawud #4403, and Ibn Majah #2041] This is an important hadith, fundamental to usool-ul-fiqh. This hadith applies in practically every situation and with every issue.
- Code of Scholars Code of Scholars is an AlMaghrib Institute course taught by Muhammad Alshareef. The course teaches the basics of the science of Usool ul-Fiqh, derived from the Qur’an and Sunnah. What does haram mean? Who makes laws? What are the different types of fard actions? What Arabic keywords indicate something is haram? Students who succeed gain the ability to analyze contradicting fatawa and determine which are more correct islamically.
- Those five categories of all actions–fard (also known as wajib), mustahab (sometimes called “sunnah”), mubah, makrooh, and haram–what do they really mean? While you can understand these from different angles, we explain these from an Usool-ul-Fiqh perspective. Here they are: Fard/Wajib (obligatory) means any action that you earn a reward for performing, and earn a punishment from abstaining from. Examples include praying, fasting, etc. Mustahab/Sunnah (recommended) means any action that you earn a reward for performing, and earn nothing from abstaining from.
- Every specific Islamic rule originates from a law maker. Here, we investigate who can say, in Islam, that something is the law. Allah is the Law Maker! Allah (سبحانه وتعالى), Lord of the Worlds, is the law maker. None can dispute His laws. What’s the proof? In Surah Yusuf Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says: إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ أَمَرَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ Translation: the command is for none but Allah: He hath commanded that ye worship none but Him: that is the right deen, but most men understand not.